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Friday, November 26, 2010

CS610 Assignment 2

CS 610 Computer Networks
Assignment # 02
Fall 2010
                                                                             Total Marks = 20

Your assignment must be uploaded / submitted before or on Nov 26, 2010.

Upload Instructions
Please view the assignment submission process document provided to by the Virtual
University to upload the assignment.

Rules for Marking
Please note that your assignment will not be graded if:
·         It is submitted after due date
·         The file you uploaded does not open
·         The file you uploaded is copied from some one else or from internet
·         It is in some format other than .doc

The assignment has been designed to enable you develop:
  • Understanding about routing algorithms

Note: Material that is an exact copy from handouts or internet would be graded zero marks. Your solution should consist of the material found through different sources and written in your own wordings.

Assignment Statement:
Give detailed comparison of all routing algorithms with respect to the type of network. 


Note: Solve it by yourself

 CS_610 2nd
assignment solution

Give detailed comparison of all routing algorithms with respect to the type of
Routing algorithms can be defined as a mechanism that tells the router how to
process. All these algorithms are different from others regarding their design and
efficiency and type. Routing algorithms can broadly be divided into following

Ø Static versus dynamic
Ø Single-path versus multipath
Ø Flat versus hierarchical
Ø Host-intelligent versus router-intelligent
Ø Interadomain versus interdomain
Ø Link-state versus distance vector

All these algorithms have different design, different working and different
metrics to measure the best paths for routing.

Static versus dynamic 

Static algorithms are actually the tables that are created by the network
administrator before the beginning of routing; they will not be updated till an
administrator does it manually. While the dynamic routing algorithms are updated
as they find any sort of change in routing paths.

Single-path versus multipath
The single path routing algorithms have a single path to the destination while
multipath algorithms allow traffic to route over multiple lines in order to get more
efficiency and load balancing.

Flat versus hierarchical 

The scenarios where flat algorithm routing protocols are implemented, the
routers are just like peers to each other while in hierarchical algorithms routers
might be differentiated into backbone and non-backbone routers and so is their

Host-intelligent versus router-intelligent
Host intelligent algorithms let the source routers work involuntarily and
mindlessly, they just send packets and leave the decision on destination routers.
In router intelligent algorithm routers define their path to destination regarding
their own routing path calculations.

Interadomain versus interdomain
Routing algorithms that are restricted to only work within the domain are referred
as interadomain routing algorithms and if they are not restricted only within the
domains then they are interdomain algorithms.

Link-state versus distance vector
Link state algorithms, all routers send the states updating of their linked nodes to
all other nodes in the Internetwork while distance vector algorithms are able to
send only the major changes to its neighbours.


Friday, November 5, 2010


Assignment No. 1
Semester: Fall 2010
CS201: Introduction to Programming
Total Marks: 20

Due Date: 05th November, 2010

Please read the following instructions carefully before submitting your assignment:
It should be clear that your assignment will not get any credit if:

§         The assignment is submitted after due date.
§         The submitted assignment does not open or file is corrupt.

All types of plagiarism are strictly prohibited.

Note: You have to upload only .cpp file. Assignment in any other format (extension) will not be accepted. If you will submit code any other file format like .doc or .txt etc. you will get zero marks.

The objective of this assignment is to provide hands on experience of using

§         Basic concepts of C/C++ language and Programming
§         Writing, Compiling and Executing a C program
§         Conditional statements of C language
§         Loops in C language

§         Code should be properly aligned and well commented.
§         Follow C/C++ rules while writing variables names, function names etc.
§         Use only Dev-C++ IDE for this assignment.


Problem Statement: Calculating No. of A Grades in Class

You are required to write a program which should take input from user in the form of characters A or B. Based upon user’s input you should calculate no. of A grades. You should use while loop or do/while loop for taking input and if / else condition for making decisions.

Detailed Description:

The program should display like;

Please Enter Grade (‘A’ OR ‘B’ )

Then the program should take 10 inputs one by one,

  • After taking 10 inputs, you should display no. of A grades.
  • If A grades are less than or equal to 2, you should display a message “Your class is Poor!”.
  • If A grades are less than or equal to 7, you should display a message “Your class is Good!”.
  • If A grades are greater than or equal to 8, you should display a message “Your class is Brilliant!”.
  • The user should enter either A or B. If user has entered other than A or B, e.g. C,D,E etc. Your program should display a message like; 
     "Please Enter 'A' or 'B' grade only!"

Sample Input and Output

Please Enter Grade of student 1 :
Please Enter Grade of student 2 :
Please Enter Grade of student 3 :
Please Enter Grade of student 4 :
Please Enter Grade of student 5 :
Please Enter Grade of student 6 :
Please Enter Grade of student 7 :
Please Enter Grade of student 8 :
Please Enter Grade of student 9 :

Please Enter ‘A’ or ‘B’ grade only!
Please Enter Grade of student 9 :

Please Enter Grade of student 10 :

Total No. of A Grades = 6

Your Class is Good!

Your Assignment solution must be uploaded/submitted on or before November 05, 2010


int main()
int countA=0,countB=0,counTotal=1; 
char grade;
cout<<"Please Enter Grade of student "<<counTotal<<":"<<endl;
if (grade=='A') //  checking A was entered
else if(grade=='B')
cout<<"Please Enter Grade ('A' OR 'B' ):"<<endl;
}while (counTotal <= 10); 
cout<<"Total No. of A Grades = "<<countA<<endl;
if(countA>=8){cout<<"Your class is Brilliant!"<<endl;}
else if (countA < 8 && countA >2){cout<<"Your class is Good!"<<endl;}
else cout<<"Your class is Poor!"<<endl;
return 0;

Thursday, November 4, 2010

FEE for MBA Sudents

Published On:  Thursday, November 04, 2010
For the students of MBA, the fee voucher is now generated after the close of "course selection". Further, the voucher is based on "per credit hour". The period of a semester is spread over 18-20 weeks; it is not spread over full six(06) months. Based on these issues, the fee voucher can not be split in to more than two(02) installments.
Students have to pay either the full voucher or two installments in accordance with the dates mentioned on the voucher(s). 
No further installments will be made; students are therefore, advised not to send e-mails requesting for more than two installments.

Wednesday, November 3, 2010

Fall 2010 Mid Term Examinations: Make your Date Sheet NOW!

Published On:  Tuesday, November 02, 2010
As announced earlier, the web interface for making your date sheet is being placed on the following link: 
Note: You MUST make your date sheet on or before:  Tuesday, November 9, 2010. Seats will be available on a 'first come first served' basis.
  1. Logon using your VULMS ID and Password (In case of any password related problem contact at
  2. Choose Your Exam City in which you want to appear for Exam (optional)
  3. Choose your Exam Center out of the centers available to you(Once selected, you can not change your Exam Center)
  4. Select available exam date and start time of your own choice for each of your courses, then click “Confirm” button to confirm your selection.
  5. Repeat the Step-4 for all your remaining courses one by one.
  6. Finally click the button at the bottom of the page to get Examination Password and print your Examination Slip which you MUST keep with you for entry in Examination Center on each of the Exam Dates

Fee Submission Schedule for November, 2010

Published On:  Monday, November 01, 2010
Following is the schedule for fee submission for the month of November, 2010:

  • Voucher Generation Date:                     November 02, 2010
  • Last date for Fee Deposit:                     November 16, 2010
  • Blocking of Students’ Accounts:            November 22, 2010 (However, students can deposit their fee with fine till November 25, 2010).
  • Invoice Generation Date for PVCs:       November 26, 2010

Important Notice for submission of fee

Published On:  Monday, November 01, 2010
All students are advised not to deposit their fee by using ATM cards as it does not leave any evidence for submission of fee. Always deopsit fee in the designated banks through fee vouchers.

Important Notice

Published On:  Wednesday, October 27, 2010
Important Notice 
The staff of Private Virtual Campuses (PVCs) is not authorized to certify any form for VU students on behalf of Virtual University of Pakistan. The University Rule on this issue is as under:
“PVCs shall not be entitled to issue any letter, certificate, diploma, degree to any VU student or person on the behalf of Virtual University of Pakistan. The PVC will not be allowed to use the VU or Government logo in any stationery for whatsoever purpose. Any proof regarding the issuance of said documents shall be treated as sufficient basis to take appropriate action against such PVC that may lead towards cancellation of its status”. 
Some PVCs are certifying PTCL broad band, railway travel, zakat fund or other forms which is entirely an illegal practice and unacceptable. The students are instructed to refrain from getting any form certified/attested from the PVC. Only University can certify student forms used for different activities. If any student needs further guidance, s/he  can mail the query at


If a measure is consistent over multiple occasions, it has:
Select correct option:
Inter-rater reliability
Construct validity
internal validity
Test-retest reliability

What is ordinal data?
Select correct option:
Ordinary data
Well behaved data
Ranked data  

Which of the following is a research method that allows a researcher to get information about a large number of subjects relatively inexpensively and easily?
Select correct option:
Naturalistic observation
Case study
Laboratory observation

What type of process research is?
Select correct option:
A process to discover the truth
A process to invent the machines
A process to make new medicines
A process to create theories

A telephone company is interested in obtaining customers' reactions to a new service package. Which of the following primary research methods would be most effective in reaching this audience to obtain their feedback?
Select correct option:
An Internet survey
Telephone interviews
A mail survey
Focus groups   p--156

The number of people who complete a survey in relation to the number of people contacted to participate is called the:
Select correct option:
Response set
Response rate   p—7 2
Response bias

Which of the following is an example of deception in business research?
Select correct option:
The obtaining of company material without permission.
The researcher wearing a disguise during an observation.
The researcher representing their research as being about a different topic.
The researcher failing to ask permission to interview someone.

Which one of the following tasks is NOT accomplished by theoretical framework?
Select correct option:
Elaborate the relationship among the variables
Explain the logic underlying the relationship between the variables.
Describe the nature, and direction of the relationships among the variables.
Relates the previous studies.

Which of the following is not a feature of theoretical framework?
Select correct option:
Making an inventory of variables
Specify the direction of relationship
Presenting findings
making an inventory of propositions

Which of the following is not included in Objects?
Select correct option:

The key objective of data analysis is to:
Select correct option:
Calculate statistics
Understand relationships between variables
Obtain the distribution of responses for each question
Create tables, which display the survey results


For ensuring success in business, top management applies different kind of strategies. Suppose if you are a CEO of any bank, what kind of strategies you may design for the better growth and success.

Your job is to only identify any four or five successful strategies for banks.

Due date 05-11-2010


• Price Leadership Strategy
• Flexibility
• Product or services differentiation
• Time to respond to customers and other changes
• Best possible use of IT & Information System Management
• Strong CRM Department
• Wide range of services to satisfy my customers
• I will try to be proactive rather than to be reactive
• Strong Marketing Department
• Well training Human Resources.


As being a CEO of any bank I might design the following strategies;
  1. The latest wealth management industry trends with industry leaders and experts.
  2. New techniques for assessing risk tolerance and applying behavioral finance.
  3. Post-modern portfolio management techniques and asset-liability management.
  4. Key needs of private clients and organizational design ideas.
  5. Family governance, succession planning, and family business issues.

  • Interpersonal relationship with the customers and employees
  • Communication with my employees to check their problems, needs and complaints
  • I will change the duties of employees to avoid the plan fraud.
  • Continuous audit of the bank will be performed
  • Careful handling the customers
  • Sold security of the bank
  • Easy to get the services in the bank
  • Mission statement, why the company in business
    SWOT analysis
  • Set the targets (long term objects and goals)    



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