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Friday, November 30, 2012

Amazing Rock in Saudi Arabia - Believe It Or Not

A huge rock in a village of Al-Hassa region, SAUDI ARABIA raises 11 cms from the ground level once in a year during the month of April and stays elevated for about 30 minutes!!!

They say that 17 years ago, one Mujahid was shot dead behind this rock as he was hidden there. This encounter happened in the month of April 1989. You can see the fresh blood stains on the rock. Most surprisingly, when the rock raises from the ground, these stains become darker, fresher and wet. Local residents tried to wipe off the stains several times, but after some time it appears again on the rock automatically...

Isn't it astounding? 

Have a look.... 

Apple Introduced the iPhone 5

Apple Introduced the iPhone 5 

Apple introduced the iPhone 5  Review, Pictures & HD Wallpapers: U.S. technology giant Apple officially introduced the latest version of its popular Smartphone –“ iPhone 5”, which is thinner and 20% lighter than the previous model (iPhone 4S), released almost a year ago. Apple has made the presentation of iPhone 5 in San Francisco. Thanks to the new product, the company expects to again come out on top in the world in Smartphone sales, which it lost to this year the Korean company Samsung.
In recent days, other Smartphone makers have also announced their new products, trying to take advantage of the fact that throughout the world, the demand for the most technologically advanced smart phones. Representatives Apple reported that the new phone is made of aluminum and glass, the thickness is 7.6 mm and weighs 122 grams.
Screen size – 10.2 cm phone has a faster processor and three microphones, instead of the two previous models. In the U.S. the new iPhone 5 will go on sale next week and will cost as much as the cost the previous model: the base mode will cost customers to sign a two-year contract with mobile communications, $ 199.

Apple-introduced-the-iPhone-5-–-Review-Pictures-HD- Wallpapers 4 Apple-introduced-the-iPhone-5-–-Review-Pictures-HD-Wallpapers 1 Apple-introduced-the-iPhone-5-–-Review-Pictures-HD-Wallpapers 2 Apple-introduced-the-iPhone-5-–-Review-Pictures-HD-Wallpapers


iPhone 5 - iPhone 4S - iPhone 4

A6 chip

A5 chip


Thursday, November 29, 2012

MGT603 GDB Solution 30-11-2012

Total Marks20
Starting DateWednesday, November 28, 2012
Closing DateFriday, November 30, 2012

Topic:              External Assessment

Learning Objectives:
·                                 To highlight the external factors that can have an impact on company’s operations
·                                 To enlighten the impact of External Factors on company’s strategies
Learning Outcomes:
After completing this activity, the student will understand:
·                                 Significance of external assessment of company.
·                                 How company incorporates change of external factors in its own strategies?
The Case
GOURMET started its operations as a bakery and confectioner shop in 1987 in Lahore. With focus on customer’s need and serving quality products, it has diversified into a versatile food company and has spread its network all over the city of Lahore. The products include bakery items, mithai, dairy products, beverages, traditional halwas and premium bakery items/beverages etc. It has also extended the operations by introducing restaurants and providing catering for all occasion.    
It is the largest Lahore-based food retail chain of Pakistan having competitors like Shezan, Doce’, Cakes n Bakes and the Premium bakery brands (Kitchen Cuisine, Masooms, Moods). Shezan restaurant inauguration prompted Gourmet to come and deal in restaurants as well.  Similarly the recent trend of premium bakery brands resulted in the launching of premium sub-brand of gourmet bakers i.e. Bon Vivant.
Point to Ponder
Taking into consideration the above-stated developments, identify and enlist the major External Factors which might have contributed in Gourmet’s business diversification.



The term "diversification" is usually associated with a change in the characteristics of the
company's product line and/or market, in contrast to market penetration, market development,
and product development, which represent other types of change in product-market structure.
External factors are those factors which are external to the environment of the GOURMET.
Now discussion is open for u people.. Everybody can contribute to this discussion, in the end we can conclude a solution


Return expectations

in my point of view:
the external factors may include
·                                 rivalry challenges
·                                 competitors
·                                 customers' demands and needs
·                                 related market environment
baqi ap log btayen mere zehan main to yhi aye

Why diversification?
Often companies diversify for a host of good reasons. In other cases, it becomes a survival strategy when single product or service strategy reaches the limits of revenue generation. To achieve genuine success from planned diversification firms must reinforce internal development; pursue value-chain acquisitions, form strategic alliances and joint ventures. Often you will find that each route has its own set of issues like benefits and limitations.
However, diversification must be driven by (1) opportunities afforded in the business environment, (2) in possession of right resources and (3) own the right skills sets to make structural adjustments to extend the range of goods or services to your exising customers or new markets. By extending your portfolio of products or services, you can ensure new regular revenue streams to boost growth prospects.
In theory, the two principal objectives governing diversification are (a) to improve core process execution and (b) enhance a business unit's structural position by creating additional value through synergetic integration of new businesses into the existing ones. These approaches grant a firm to improve its competitive advantage and thereby, increasing the value for owners.
Diversification typically takes one of three forms:
Vertical Integration – integrating business along the value chain, both upstream and downstream, so that one efficiently feeds the other,
Horizontal Diversification – moving into more than one industry or new industry relates to the existing ones or pursue a strategy of unrelated diversification,
Geographical Diversification – open up new markets, moving into new geographical area to overcome limited growth opportunities in the local market.
When to diversify
When to diversify has significance in business decision-making. It is about timing - until the core business is stable enough and the right business environment omnipresent for profit making. The catalyst is the knack for visioning and grasping the opportunity when presented to move away from unprofitable businesses and has limited scope in particular market.
Diversification strategy
Diversification strategies are used to expand firms' operations by adding markets, products, services, or stages of production to the existing business.
The purpose of diversification is to allow the company to enter lines of business that are different from current operations. When the new venture is strategically related to the existing lines of business, it is called concentric diversification. Conglomerate diversification occurs when there is no common thread of strategic fit or relationship between the new and old lines of business; the new and old businesses are unrelated.
Some believe that diversification is by natural progression, i.e. extending the brand by offering a much wider range of products that will appeal to the same customer base. An accurate description of diversification is capitalizing on a firm’s core competence and the strength of a successful brand to move into new markets.

A company's core competencies are the prized possession that give the competitive advantage – for example, process knowledge and the acquisition of raw material that you turn out better than ones’ competitors do. Those extensions represent excellent opportunities for diversification.
To strengthen diversification, a new strategic business unit must be capable of transforming and benefiting from the existing core competence to make it difficult for competition to replicate.
Another popular business diversification strategy is called forward and backwards integration acquisition of operations in the supply chain for opportunities to strengthen a firms grip on the market.
Pros and cons of diversification
It is naïve to think that diversification can put a firm on the fast track to growth but if the strategy fails, it can also burn up money simply because the management failed to understand the teething problems of a new venture. When expanding a brand into new markets there is a real danger that it will have no resonance with the newly targeted customers. Thus, it is vital to conduct extensive research on new markets to determine the sustainability before diversifying.
More often, firms in a rush to jump ahead of the competition fail to look in the mirror ask if they are really ready and if the existing business is healthy enough to support the diversification. Do they have the right managers to guide and cope with a diverging strategy? Should they integrate the diversified business into one company or branch off as a new business operation? Once those decisions are made to plunge to diversify, they need to remain for the duration. If not, what will be exposed is their poor decision-making skills and also raises serious questions about their judgments on all matters. Here is the axiom that corporate big wigs ought to follow - think hard before you jump!
Diversification in the context of growth strategies
Diversification is solely a growth strategy and it should not be driven by egoistic compulsion to match what your competitors are engaged in. Growth strategies should be based on right vision and the capacity to mobilize resources to overcome all adversities venturing into the unknown. Ordinarily a strong view held by corporate Sri Lanka’s executives is that "bigger is better." Growth in sales is often used as a measure of performance. Even if profits remain stable or decline, an increase in sales satisfies many people even though the profits are down. The assumption is often made that if sales increase, profits will eventually follow – not so.
The golden rule for timed-diversification is when a firm has acquired lower production know-how; labour efficiency; redesign of products or production processes e lower costs and with the right mix of what they are capable of and meeting consumer satisfaction.
Strategy and management teams
Rewards for managers are usually greater when a firm is pursuing a growth strategy since it is profit-driven. The higher the sales level, the larger the compensation received. As a result, managers tend to pursue risks that would bring the highest rewards for them, but may not necessarily be the right strategies for companies.
Often it is hard to say whether a firm's diversification strategy is well matched by the strengths of its top management factoring their past successes. For example, the success of a diversification will depend not only on how well integrated are the key factors, but also on how well suited are top executives are to manage that effort and guide through rough times. Studies also suggest that different diversification strategies require different sets of skills within a firm, not relying on the same company managers.
To be successful, a firm must invest in acquiring the right skills, if not at least provide the opportunities to enhance those critical skills to within. The days of jack-of-all-trades are gone, specialization have become that significant today to insure that corporate goals are achieved with minimum losses.
In Sri Lanka, there are many solid reasons for pursuing a diversification strategy, the war has ended and new opportunities are abundant. They could expand by developing new business or by buying ongoing businesses. Without a question, most will be drive by management's desire for profit making, yet that must be preceded by an internal assessment to determine their fitness to diversify. If the answers to all the questions posed here are positive, then corporate Sri Lanka's strategic business diversification is in the right direction and Sri Lankan business enterprising is destined to prosper.


the external factors which might have contributed in Gourmet business. Please, reconsider and focus on the right requirement

  1. Return expectations
  2. market line
  3. low risk rate
  4. feasibility of gain
  5.  previous experiences will be helpful
Reply me I m waiting.


MKT501 GDB Solution 29-11-2012

Product Life Cycle
Ø      To make students understand the significance of tactics and strategies for products in order to grow and sustain for longer period of time in market
Ø      To make students understand how to position a product in the minds of consumers
Ø      To enable students getting practical know-how of the concept of Product Life Cycle

Any entity, product or company passes through four main stages of its life;
Introduction: This stage includes idea germination and development. When something is created or introduced for the first time. Product launching takes place in this stage.
Growth: At this stage, product starts to generate demand. Product acceptance is confirmed when customers begin to make repeat purchases and company starts to earn profits.
Maturity: In this stage, product reaches at the peak of its growth. It has the highest sales volume and sales revenue. Price starts to decrease because of low cost of production and entry of similar products into the market. At this stage, product stops growing and becomes stagnant. It is tried to prolong this stage to the maximum.
Decline: This stage starts when product starts to lose sales volume even after every effort has been made. Profit margins begin to decline as demand and production is low and company no more has economies of scale.
The Case
Coca-Cola, the most prominent and leading brand in beverage industry, had started its business in Pakistan in 1996 and established a company with the name of Coca-Cola Beverages Pakistan Limited. It is known for its unique taste but in the beginning, it didn’t get the appeal from masses. Pepsi Cola was the famous brand at that time. Coca-Cola made its mark by positioning its products to urban areas and set it as a status symbol. Sooner, growth was observed and it began to capture market share. In early 2000s, it became the most popular beverage products provider. Coca-Cola has well maintained its position and still leading the market.
Topic of Discussion
How Coca-Cola has managed to sustain its position at maturity stage from so long while being in intense competition? On the basis of your observation, discuss any five marketing activities that have been undertaken by Coca-Cola in this respect.

After attempting this GDB students will be able to:
Distinctively comprehend each life stage of product/company with its specific indicators



The concept of the product life cycle is briefly introduced to understand how the components
of the marketing mix change during different phases of the life cycle of the product.
Different products will take different spans of time to pass thorugh the cycle of intoduction, growth, maturity and decline.
The marketer should seek and identify the stage in life cycle from the conditions in the market.
coca-Cola from so long while being in intense competition,has managed to sustain its position at
maturity stage which is actually the stage in which the product reach to its peak and becomes well established
the reason is Coca-cola
1. Has simplified its product line.
2. kept the price of the product moderate.
3. built and maintain its image and facilitated sales promotion.
4  seek close dealer relationship in order to distribute its product.
5. product diversification such as Coke, Fanta, Sprite helps it to maintain and increase its market share.
Product Diversification means that the  manufacturer offer more than one product.It involves
new products or lines to products in order to have a balanced or optimum product range.
These are the reasons due to which Coca Cola has managed to maintain its position at maturity stage many years from now. 


Marketers' marketing mix strategies change as their products goes through their life cycles. Advertising, for example, should be informative in the introduction stage, persuasive in the growth and maturity stages, and be reminder-oriented in the decline stage. Promotional budgets tend to be highest in the early stages, and gradually taper off as the product matures and declines. Pricing, distribution, and product characteristics also tend to change. Customers respond to new products in different ways. The first two stages, introduction and growth, are often seen as offensive in nature. The second two stages, mature and decline stage are often seen as defensive in nature. The defensive stage is sometimes called the armadillo phase because of that animal's defensive technique of hiding in its shell.


cs403 mid spring 2010


Spring 2010

CS403- Database Management Systems (Session - 6)

Q-  Which of the following constraints enforces entity integrity? PRIMARY KEY

Q- Which of the following statements is correct? PK can have NULL
PK in a relation is a key in some other relation
PK can be composite
PK must be selected from the list of secondary keys

Q- Which one of the following E-R diagrams most correctly represents the relationship between Student and Grade entities?
Q- Which of the following most certainly implies the need for an entire table to implement?

A binary relationship
A ternary relationship
A recursive relationship
An identifying relationship

Q- A database system allows the following EXCEPT
management and control of data towards an efficient working of an organisation.
more critical functions in organisations to be computerised and the need to keep a large volume of data available in an up to the minute current state increased.
any user to access all its data.
integration of data across multiple applications into a single application.

Q- Which of the following enforces a relation into 1st normal form?

The domain of attribute must include only atomic values.
Every non-key attribute is fully functionally dependent on primary key
non-key attribute is non-transitively dependent on primary key.
Every non-key attribute is partially dependent on super key

Q- Consider the following set of functional dependencies (FDs) on the following relational schema.
Emp_No -> {Ename, Bdate, Address, Dept_No}
Dept_No -> {Dname, Mgr_No}
The additional FD which can be inferred from the above set of FDs is
Emp_No -> {Dname, Mgr_No} Emp_Name -> Dept_No . Emp_Name -> Dept_Name . Emp_Name, Dept_No -> Mgr_No .

Q- Select the correct statement about the ANSI/SPARC architecture.

The conceptual level is a level of indication between the internal level and the external level.
The internal level in a database system will definitely be relational. Tuka uncle lagao…
Any given database has many conceptual schemas and one physical schema, but it has only one external schemas.
The external level is not concerned with individual user perceptions, while the conceptual level
is concerned with a community user perception.

Q- Which of the following is a feature of PRIMARY KEY constraint unique identifier for a row within a database table.

allow any actions that would destroy links between tables limit the values that can be placed in a column.
enforces that the column will only accept null values. Q- Structural constraints of a relationship type refer to

identifying the owner entity type relevant to a given entity type


whether the existence of an entity depends on it being related to another entity via

relationship type.
the role that a participating entity from the entity type plays in each relationship instance.
the constraints applicable in granting access to tables, columns and views in a database

Q- Which of the following is true about relational schema?
The sequence of columns is significant
The sequence of rows is significant.
Contains only derived attributes.
Values are atomic.

Q- A unary ternary binary weak

relationship exists when an association is maintained within a single entity.

Q- Which of the following is a correct way to implement one-to-many relationship while designing tables?

by splitting the data into two tables with primary key and foreign key relationships.
using a junction table with the keys from both the tables forming the composite primary key of the junction table.
by splitting each table into three
as a single table and rarely as two tables with primary and foreign key relationships.

Q- Identify the correct statement.

Entity integrity constraints specify that primary key values can be composite.
Entity integrity constraints are specified on individual relations.
Entity integrity constraints are specified between weak entities.
When entity integrity rules are enforced, a tuple in one relation that refers to another relation must refer to an existing tuple.

Q- A software package designed to store and manage databases
Data model

Q- Who is responsible for authorizing access to the database, for coordinating and monitoring its use?
Select correct option:
Database Designer
Database Administrator
End User
Application Programmer

Q- Consider the following relation R and its sample data. (Consider that these are the only tuples for the given relation)

Q- Which of the following statements is NOT correct?

The functional dependency (EmpNo, DeptNo) -> ProjNo holds over R.
The functional dependency EmpNo -> DeptNo holds over R.
The functional dependency ProjNo -> DeptNo holds over R.
The functional dependency (EmpNo, ProjNo) -> DeptNo holds over R.

Q- Which feature of database provides conversion from inconsistent state of DB to a consistent state ensuring minimum data loss?
Select correct option:
User accessible catalog
Data processing
Recovery service
Authorization service

Q- Consider the given relations Student and Instructor as given below. Please note that
Fname and Lname also denote the First Name and Last Name respectively.

Which of the following statements is correct with respect to the two relations given above?

The two relations are not union-compatible since their attribute names differ.
The set operations such as CARTESIAN PRODUCT and DIVISION can be applied on
two relations.
To find out those students who work as instructors, it is necessary to perform the operation
Student ∩ Instructor.
To find out the students who are not instructors, it is necessary to perform the operation
Student ÷ Instructor.

Q- A candidate key that does not have a null value and is selected to uniquely identify all other attribute values in any given row is called a     .
Select correct option:
superkey candidate key primary key secondary key

Q- What is the significance of normalization? Q- Define Relationship.

Q- What is the basic function of a DML Compiler? Q- Define primary key and give one example.

Q- What do you know about Insertion anomaly?

Q- Define the first normal form.\

CS403 Fall 2011 old paper

CS403 Fall 2011

Question No: 1 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
Which one of the following E-R diagrams most correctly represents the relationship between Student and Grade entities?

Question No: 2 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
Which of the following statements are Data Definition Language command?

Question No: 3 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
Which of the following statements is true about the views?
► view is always a complete set of all the tables in a database
► View can not be used for retrieving data
► The results of using a view are not permanently stored in the database.
► Rows can not be updated or deleted in the view

Question No: 4 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
How many clustered index(es) do each database table have?
► 2
► 3
► 5
► 1

Question No: 5 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
Suppose there are 4 rows and 3 columns in TABLE1 and 6 rows and 5 coulmns in TABLE2; what is the size of the cartesian product incase of CROSS JOIN between these two tables?
► 24

► 20
► 18
► 15

Question No: 6 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
Which of the following is not one of the properties of Transaction?
► atomicity
► consistency
► redundancy
► durability

Question No: 7 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
Which of the following is INCORRECT about VIEWS?

► It is not possible to left out the data which is not required for a specific view.
► A database view displays one or more database records on the same page.
► Views can be used as security mechanisms
► Views are generally used to focus the perception each user
has of the database.

Question No: 8 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
Which of the following gives all the fields from employee table named as EMP?
► select * from EMP;
► select emp* from EMP'
► select emp_id where EMP;
► select * where EMP;

Question No: 9 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
Consider the relation Interview(CandidateNo, InterviewDate, InterviewTime, StaffNo, RoomNo) and the following functional dependencies.
FD1 : CandidateNo, InterviewDate -> InterviewTime, StaffNo, RoomNo
FD2 : RoomNo, InterviewDate, InterviewTime -> StaffNo, CandidateNo
FD3 : StaffNo, InterviewDate -> RoomNo
Which of the following is correct?
► The relation Interview is in 3NF
► The relation Interview is in BCNF.
► The FD3 violates 3NF.
► The FD2 violates 2NF.

Question No: 10 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
Which of the following types of partitioning reduces the chances of unbalanced partitions?

► Vertical
► List
► Hash
► Range
Hash Partitioning:
It is a type of horizontal partitioning. In this type particular algorithm is applied and
DBMS knows that algorithm. So hash partitioning reduces the chances of unbalanced
partitions to a large extent

Question No: 11 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
Which of the following is one of the purposes of using DDL commands?
► inserting records into databases
► updating records into databases
► manipulating databases
► creating and destroying databases

Question No: 12 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
Which of the following statements creates a database named COMPANY.

► CREATE DB company
► ADD DATABASE copmany

Question No: 13 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
What is the impact of setting multiple indexes for the same key, in index sequential files?

► Multiple indexes for the same key can not be set

► It increases efficiency
► It decreases efficiency
► It will increase complexity as the access time will be increased

Question No: 14 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
Consider a transaction which includes following operations

Z= Z + 10
Write Z
Suppose that the value of Z after addition and the execution of this operation is 17. Now against the write operation the entry made in the log file will be
What does Z reflects in the above entry?
► Object being updated
► Identity of the transaction
► Object value
► Identity of the next transaction to be executed
In the entry, Tn reflects the identity of the transaction, Z is the object being updated
and 33 is the value that has to be placed in Z.

Question No: 15 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
Which of the following is not true regarding DB transactions?

► A set of database operations that are processed partly
A database transaction is a logical unit of database operations
► A database transaction must be atomic
► A database transaction must contains the ACID property

Question No: 16 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
Which of the following is not true about input forms?

► Provide an easy, effective, efficient way to enter data into a table
► Especially useful when the person entering the data is not familiar with the inner workings
► Provide different controls to add data into the tables
One input forms can populate one table at a time

Question No: 17 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
Which of the following is an example of volatile memory?

► Flash memory

Question No: 18 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
Which of following is NOT generally the aim of data partitioning and placement of data?
► Reduce Workload
► Balance Workload
►merging different relations
► Speed up rate of useful works.

Question No: 19 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
RENAME COLUMN Q_description TO Question_Descp, Std_ID to Student_ID.
Syntax of ALTER TABLE is NOT correct.
► True

Question No: 20 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
Which of the following is Advantage of Re-Hashing technique to handle the collisions?

► Collisions don’t use primary table space
► Unlimited number of elements
Fast access through use of main table space    (page29)
► Overhead of multiple linked lists

Question No: 21 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
Materialized views and Indexes are NOT similar by the following way(s).

► They consume storage space
► They must be refreshed when the data in their master tables changes.
► They can be accessed directly using a SELECT statement
► All of the Given
Unlike indexes, materialized views can be accessed directly using a SELECT statement.

Question No: 22 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
Select 'NORTH', CUSTOMER From CUST_DTLS Where REGION = 'N' Order By
The above statement:
► Has an error - the string should be in double quotes.

► Has an error - ORDER BY clause.
► Does not have an error.
► Has an error - the string in single quotes 'NORTH' and 'SOUTH'.

Question No: 23 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
A software package designed to store and manage databases
► Database
► Data model
► Data

Question No: 24 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
Who is responsible for authorizing access to the database, for coordinating and monitoring its use ?
► Database Designers
► Database Administrators
► End Users
► Application Programmers

Question No: 25 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
A superkey that does not contain a subset of attributes that is itself a superkey is called a ____.
candidate key
► primary key
► superkey
► secondary key

Question No: 26 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
A ____ entity has a primary key that is partially or totally derived from the parent entity in the relationship.
► strong
► weak
► business
► relationship

Question No: 27 ( Marks: 2 )
What is the “data type”?

A data type in programming, a classification identifying one of various types of data, as floating-point, integer, or Boolean, stating the possible values for that type, the operations that can be done on that type, and the way the values of that type are stored.

Question No: 28 ( Marks: 2 )
Which DML statement changes the values of one or more columns based on some conditions.

Update command

Question No: 29 ( Marks: 2 )
Name the two types of caching that are commonly used in personal computers?
Two types of caching are commonly used in personal computers: memory
caching and disk caching

Question No: 30 ( Marks: 2 )
What is ‘Serial Execution’?

Serial execution is an execution where transactions are executed in a sequential order,
that is, one after another. A transaction may consist of many operations. Serial
execution means that all the operations of one transaction are executer first, followed
by all the operations of the next transaction and like that.

Question No: 31 ( Marks: 3 )
Write three benefits of using VIEWS.
They work as table and, provide security from unauthorized access.
updated automatically when some changes occurs in original table
views give a group of user’s access to just the information they are allowed to

Question No: 32 ( Marks: 3 )
Shortly explain BYTE data field?
Some of more frequently supported numeric data types include Byte, Integer, and Long Integer. Each of these types supports different range of numeric values and takes 1, 4 or 8 bytes to store. Now, if we declare the age attribute as Long Integer, it will definitely serve the purpose, but we will be allocating unnecessarily large space for each attribute. A Byte type would have been sufficient for this purpose since you won’t find students or employees of
age more than 255, the upper limit supported by Byte data type.

Question No: 33 ( Marks: 3 )
State the main purpose of index in relation with the queries executions.
It will help searching the required data by directly accessing it via index.

Question No: 34 ( Marks: 5 )
Differentiate between the cluster index and non cluster index ?
1 A cluster index is a form of tables which consist of column and rows.
2 Cluster index exists on the physical level
3 It sorts the data at physical level
4 It works for the complete table
5 There is a whole table in form of sorted data
6 A table can contain only one cluster index
Non Cluster Index
1 A non cluster index is in the form of a report about the tables.
2 They are not created on the physical level but at the logical level
3 It does not sort the data at physical level
4 A table has 255 non clustered indexes
5 A table has many non clustered indexes.
6 It work on the order of data

Question No: 35 ( Marks: 5 )
Consider the two relations,
Department (Dept_Code, Dep_Name,Dept_Head) and
Employee(Emp_ID,Emp_Name, Designation, DoB, Dept).
Write SQL statement to drop the primary key of Department relation? The fields in
Employee should reflect the removal in Department table.
If you wanted to drop any Primary key column you first have to drop the primary key constraints and then you can drop the primary key column.
ALTER TABLE Department DROP COLUMN Dept_code;

Question No: 36 ( Marks: 5 )
Briefly explain rollback and roll forward.

There are two modes to database recovery, ROLLBACK and ROLLFORWARD. If a transaction amends, the user's transaction on the database is rolled back. ROLLBACK is the most common form of recovery.
The other form of database recovery is ROLLFORWARD. If a hard disk fails, then a ROLLFORWARD is performed to restore the database to the point in time of the disk failure. The logs are kept because they would need to be applied to a full backup of the database to restore the database to the point of disk failure.



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