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Monday, December 17, 2012

STA630 Old Past paper 2009


1)Which of the following is NOT a necessary component of survey research?

► Triangulation of data

2)What should the researcher do if they have achieved a low response rate?

► Recognize and accept the possible limitations of a low response rate.

3)Moving up the ladder of the abstraction, concepts become _________.

► Wider In Scope

4)Extrapolation in theory refers t
► Making generalization on the basis of the present findings

5)Peer review refers t

► Critical literature review before publishing

6)Which of the following is the BEST hypothesis?

► Students taking formative quizzes will perform better on exams at the end of the
chapter than students not taking these quizzes.

7)Which of the following does not represent the characteristic of a good quantitative problem statement?

► Conveys a sense of emerging design.

8)Why do you need to review the existing literature?

► To find out what is already known about your area of interest .

9)A literature review should be characterized by all of the following, EXCEPT;

► Summarize and report each article.

10)Which of the following surveys are more impersonal than face-to-face interviews?

► Telephonic

11)Which one of these is an interviewer-administered questionnaire?

► Telephone questionnaire

12)Which one of the following tasks is NOT accomplished by theoretical framework?

► Relates the previous studies.

13)Which of the following is NOT a legitimate purpose of a research plan?

► ► It provides clear roadmap of the study.

14)While studying supervisor-subordinate relationship in an organization, what is the unit of analysis?
► Dyad

15)Which of the following represent a good qualitative problem statement?

► conveys a sense of emerging design.

16)All of the following are true about theories, except:
        
►They are tentative until the facts prove them true.
 17)“Downsizing in an organization in future is associated with the level of job security of the      

present employee in an organization” is an example of which of the following?
        
►Explanatory hypothesis
       

18)Which of the following is to convince reviewers that the researcher is capable of successfully conducting the proposed research project?

►Researchproposal

19)Which type of review compares how different theories address an issue?

Theoretical review

20)Which of the following is a characteristic of a standardized test?
► The administration of the test is controlled carefully to ensure that all examinees
experience the same conditions.
► The test is developed by experts to ensure it is technically sound.
► The scores are interpreted in standard ways.
► All of the given options

21)Which of the following is TRUE for research plan? ► It should be detailed.
► It should be given to others for review and comments.
► It sets out the rationale for a research study.
► All of the given options




STA630 Latest Paper 12 Dec. 2012




IN which Situation u will use mail questionnaire? 5 marks
Problem definition 5 marks
Advantage & disadvantage of using public internet for theoretical research? 3 marks
Aspect of data collection? 3 marks
Respondent bias? 3 marks
total mcqs 22
Mostly objective was from previous papers
and 5 other Question 2 by 5 maks and other of 3 marks
1-in a company there is high turnover your are higher as a researcher what you can do among(obsevation or survey)to find out the reasons of this turnover
2-discuss three elements which are used to boast morale in empolyees
3-research question helps in the preparation of hypothesis explain with example
4-related to cover letter discuss the followings
sponcer-objective-selection crieteria

MKT501 today paper 8 December 2012


My today paper of MKT501
8 December 2012:
Total questions were 27;
22 MCQS and 5 subjective.
Q#1:
Retailing is the dead of product distribution. Explain it?
Q#2:
In new product development process, what is meant by Business analysis?
Q#3:
Explain the concept of loss leader with the help of an example and why loss leader are priced below cost.
Q#4:
Explain the marketing strategies that marketing managers can peruse at introduction stage of product life cycle considering only promotion and price of the product and also discuss when each strategy can work efficiently.
Q#5:
Murtaza in his cosmetic store believes in setting allow and upper price range instead of one price for products. He charges for example lower price for the same product from one customer and middle and upper prices for the same product from different customers. Which pricing technique is using in your opinion and what benefit is he enjoying.

MKT 501 today paper 15\12\12 (2:30pm)


22 MCQS
  • Explain the features of any product at its maturity stage? 3
  • DIFFERENTIATE BETWEEN private branding and brand licensing? 3
  • Think as a marketer and discuss what type of opportunities advancement in information and communication technology may bring for a grocery retailer? 3
  • How advertisement and promotional budget of a product, changing during its life cycle? 5
  • Setting prices for the product is critical task for the marketers? List down five critical questions that a marketer should answer before setting prices?5




MGT602 Current Midterm Dec 2012 Subjective Solved


MGT602= Current Midterm Dec 2012 Subjective Solved
By::: YASIR JAVAED

Difference of indirect and direct export
Exporting
As a general rule, an entrepreneur starts doing international business through exporting.
Indirect exporting involves a foreign purchaser in the local market or using an export management firm. For certain commodities, foreign buyers seek out sources of supply. Export management firms, another indirect method, are located in many commercial centers.
Direct exporting through independent distributors or through one’s own overseas sales office is another entry method. An independent foreign distributor directly contacts foreign customers and takes care of all technicalities. Entrepreneurs who do not wish to give up control over marketing can open overseas sales offices and hire their own salespeople.

3 successes and 2 failures of GATT (The General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT 1947)

GATT’s success in reducing tariffs to such a low level, combined with a series of economic recessions in the 1970s and early 1980s, drove governments to devise other forms of protection for sectors facing increased foreign competition. High rates of unemployment and constant factory closures led governments in Western Europe and North America to seek bilateral market-sharing arrangements with competitors and to embark on a subsidies race to maintain their holds on agricultural trade. Both these changes undermined GATT’s credibility and effectiveness.

Problems with GATT

  • GATT has failed in significantly liberalizing trade of agricultural products. This was one of the major goals at the Uruguay Round.
  • It has been partially successful in the regulation of trade practices adopted by member countries in response to BP difficulties. For example, the United States in 1971 imposed a 10% additional charge on its imports, thereby doubling its average duties.
  • Steady erosion of the MFN principle by the EC. Article 24 permits member countries to form a CU or a FTA. The EC adopted VILs to keep out agricultural products, lowered duties to many African and Mediterranean countries, which are not extended to other GATT contracting parties.
  • GATT condoned managed trade for textiles, largely due to US pressure, and automobiles (VERs).
  • GATT is an executive agreement under the Protocol of Provisional Application. What this means is that the contracting parties are not obligated to abide by those rules that were inconsistent with their domestic laws at the time of entry of the contracting party into GATT. Many countries bypass or sidestep rules and provisions by deliberately narrowly defining commodities because of tariff purposes.


Opportunity analysis
Opportunity analysis, or an opportunity assessment plan, should focus on the opportunity and provide the basis to make the decision, including:
a. A description of the product or service
b. An assessment of the opportunity
c. Assessment of the entrepreneur and the team
d. Specifications of all the activities and resources needed
e. The source of capital to finance the initial venture
The most difficult aspect of opportunity analysis is the assessment of the opportunity.

Copyright and limitations
The exclusive right to make and dispose of copies of a literary, musical, or artistic work
Limitations
All other uses require permission and copyright owners can license or permanently transfer or assign their exclusive rights to others. Copyright does not protect ideas, only their expression or fixation. Without the permission of owner you cannot have a right to copy.

How is inventor different from entrepreneur?
An Entrepreneur is someone who starts up a business and has all the necessary resources to implement his/her business idea.
However Inventor is someone actually creates something new for the society and/or world as a whole. Inventors can not always be good in implementing or commercializing his/her invention for the good of society or even when it comes to serving the whole world. On the other hand Entrepreneurs strive to implement their ideas and make it good for the society.

Q2.Why creating a venture with corporation is not better than independent entrepreneur.3 marks


Q3.Describe different kinds of claims and choose a claim about certain given scenario.5 marks

Claim (patent)

Patent claims are the part of a patent or patent application that defines the scope of protection granted by the patent. The claims define, in technical terms, the extent of the protection conferred by a patent, or the protection sought in a patent application. The claims are of the utmost importance both during prosecution and litigation.
For instance, a claim could read:
  • "An apparatus for catching mice, said apparatus comprising a base for placement on a surface, a spring member..."
  • "A chemical composition for cleaning windows, said composition comprising 10–15% ammonia, ..."
  • "Method for computing future life expectancies, said method comprising gathering data including X, Y, Z, ..."
A patent is a right to exclude others from making, using, selling or offering for sale the subject matter defined by the claims. In order to exclude someone from using a patented invention in a court, the patent owner, or patentee, needs to demonstrate that what the other person is using falls within the scope of a claim of the patent. Therefore, it is more valuable to obtain claims that include the minimal set of limitations that differentiate an invention over what came before, i.e. the so-called prior art. On the other hand, the fewer the limitations in a claim, the more likely it is that the claim will cover or "read on" what came before and be rejected during examination or found to be invalid at a later time for lack of novelty.


Q5.Environment Factor facing by international entrepreneurship. 3 marks
The entrepreneur should first conduct an environmental analysis to identify trends and changes occurring on a national and international level that may impact the new venture. Examples of environmental factors are:
Economy Culture Technology Legal concerns All of the above external factors are generally uncontrollable Next the entrepreneur should conduct an industry analysis that focuses on specific industry trends. Some examples of industry factors include: Industry demand Competition The last part of this section should focus on the specific market. This would include such information as who the customer is and what the business environment is like. The market should be segmented and the target market identified

Q2. importance of top management commitment to Intrapreneure? 3 marks
The first step is to secure a commitment to intrapreneurship in the organization by top,
upper, and middle management. Without top management commitment, the organization will never be able to make the necessary changes. Once top management has committed to intrapreneurship for a sufficient length of time, the concept is introduced throughout the organization. This is effectively accomplished through seminars. General guidelines need to be established for intrapreneurial venture development. Next, intrapreneurial leaders need to be identified, selected, and trained.


Q3. Benefits of registering trade mark? 3 marks
A trademark may be a word, symbol, design, or some combination that identifies the source of certain goods. A trademark can last indefinitely, as long as it continues to perform its indicated function. The trademark is given a 20-year registration with 20-year renewable terms. In the fifth to sixth year, you must file an affidavit with the PTO indicating that the patent is in commercial use. Today the law allows filing a trademark solely on the intent to use the trademark in interstate commerce. There are benefits to registering a mark that has already been in use.
 Categories of trademarks:
Coined marks denote no relationship between the mark and the goods and afford the possibility of expansion.
An arbitrary mark is one that has another meaning in our language.
A suggestive mark is used to suggest certain features or characteristics of a product or service.
A descriptive mark must have become distinctive and gained recognition before it can be registered. Registering a trademark can offer significant advantages to the entrepreneur.




Business plan importance to entrepreneur
Business plan is significant because, In running or starting a business, the learning curve is short before you run out of resources and are forced to close. Therefore, a business plan helps you set up a sound framework, model and system ahead of time, as well as, treat potential problems and threats, so that you can capably run a business. A funding business plan will save you a lot of time and money. The beautiful thing about a business plan is that it actually creates the future of your business, as you want it to be. It gives you more control over what future success will come. More importantly, it gives you a great process to grow the future business you desire, whether that is a start up, acquisition, expansion or build out.

Role of Export management Firm in Indirect Exports
Export management firms, another indirect method, are located in many commercial centers. For a fee, these firms will provide representation in foreign market. Typically, they represent a group of non-competing manufactures from the same country who have no interest in becoming directly involved in exporting. The expert management handles all of selling, marketing and delivery, in addition to any problem technical problems involved in the export process.  

Factors that involves problems in starting International business
·         Economics
·         Balance of Payments
·         Political-Legal Environment
·         Cultural Environment
·         Technological Environment

1.   Why corporate Entrepreneurs are more successful than Independent Entrepreneurs? (3 marks)
2.   What is GATT? Write is purpose of GATT? (5 marks)
GATT is a multilateral agreement with the objective of liberalizing trade by eliminating tariffs and import quotas. In each round, mutual tariff reductions are negotiated between member nations. Members can ask for investigation of violations. While GATT has helped develop more unrestricted trade, its voluntary membership gives it little authority.

General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade. Treaty organization affiliated with the United Nations whose purpose was to facilitate international trade. The primary actions of the organization were to freeze and reduce tariff levels on various commodities. GATT was created in 1947, and was originally intended to become a part of the International Trade Organization (ITO); however, the ITO failed to be created, so the GATT was left as an independent organization. In 1994, GATT was superseded by the WTO.



3.   What is written in Description of the Venture section of Business Plan? (5 marks)
The description of the venture should be detailed in this section. This should begin with the mission statement or company mission, which describes the nature of the business and what the entrepreneur hopes to accomplish. The new venture should be described in detail, including the product, location, personnel, background of entrepreneur, and history of the venture. The emphasis placed on location is a function of the type of business. Maps that locate customers, competitors, and alternative locations can be helpful. If the building or site decision involves legal issues, the entrepreneur should hire a lawyer.

4.   While starting new foreign business, what things should Entrepreneur consider?  (3 marks)
Strategic Planning offers ideas on how to match the organization’s design to its products and capabilities, goals and resources. This process is much easier to execute once you have obtained a basic knowledge of exporting value-added food products, understand the marketing research process, and analyzed the elements of the marketing mix. Proper organization, both internally and externally, allow the firm to become more efficient in its operations and expansion.
After the information the first step in building a successful export strategy is determining the firm’s readiness to export. The following are guidelines on preparing an export business plan, developing export marketing skills, designing a template for an export marketing plan and considering marketing tools prior to engaging directly in promotional activities.

5.   In what situation Entrepreneur will involve in Joint Venture, in case of International business? (3 marks)
Joint ventures
Two firms get together and form a third company in which they share the equity.
Joint ventures have been used by entrepreneurs in two situations:
1. When the entrepreneur wants to purchase local knowledge and an established facility.
2. When rapid entry into a market it needed. The keys to success of joint ventures have not been well understood. Reasons for forming a joint venture today are different than those in the past. Originally, joint ventures were used for trading purposes and were one of the oldest ways of transacting business. Joint ventures in the U.S. took the form of vertical joint ventures used by mining concerns and railroads. Motives for the significant increase in the use of joint ventures:
a. To share the costs and risks of an uncertain project.
b. To gain synergy between the two firms.
c. To obtain a competitive advantage.
d. To enter markets that pose entrance difficulties.

2 - Education as a entrepreneur characteristic (3Marks)
Education appears important in the upbringing of the entrepreneur, in the level of education obtained and in playing a major role in coping with problems. Although formal education is not necessary for starting a new business, it does provide a good background. In education, female entrepreneurs previously experienced some disadvantage, with few having degrees in engineering, science, or math. The ability to deal with people and communicate clearly in written and spoken work is also important.

3 - Pakistan is running Indian movies in local cinemas local market is dying, If you are Commerce minister what would you suggest to revive local market. write 5 points (5Marks)

MGT602 Midterm Subjective Solved from Past Papers


MGT602= t Midterm Subjective Solved from Past Papers
By::: YASIR JAVAED

Characteristics of searching an outside partner. (3 Marks)
Following are a few things that one always tries to search in their partner and which not only makes a great partner but also are the characteristics of a great relationship.
· Someone who is caring and honest.
· Someone who is open and responsive and with whom you can confide in like a friend.
· Someone who is trustworthy and who will risk his/her life for you

What is Business Plan. (3 Marks)
A business plan is a written document prepared by the entrepreneur that describes all the relevant external and internal elements involved in starting a new venture. It addresses both short- and long-term decision making. The business plan is like a road map for the business’ development. The Internet also provides outlines for business planning.

Why business plan is significant. (5 Marks)
Business plan is significant because, in running or starting a business, the learning curve is short before you run out of resources and are forced to close. Therefore, a business plan helps you set up a sound framework, model and system ahead of time, as well as, treat potential problems and threats, so that you can capably run a business. A funding business plan will save you a lot of time and money. The beautiful thing about a business plan is that it actually creates the future of your business, as you want it to be. It gives you more control over what future success will come. More importantly, it gives you a great process to grow the future business you desire, whether that is a start up, acquisition, expansion or build out.

How present business plan to potential investor
It is often necessary for an entrepreneur to orally present the business plan to investors.
Typically the entrepreneur provides a short (20-30 minutes) presentation of the business plan. The entrepreneur must sell their business concept in a short time period. A venture capitalist or angel group may also ask the entrepreneur to present the plan to their partners before making a final decision.

Strategic issues in international entrepreneurship
Strategic Issues to Consider:
1. Is rapid entry into the market needed?
2. Will joint venture result in obtaining a competitive advantage?
3. The allocation of responsibility between the U.S. and the foreign operation.
4. Would the joint venture lower the chances of expropriation (mining ventures)?
5. What’s the degree of standardization possible?

What will your strategic planning while enter international market
When you decide to enter into the international market you should keep few things in mind. When you decide to enter into the international market you should change your mindset. Each and every country has its own tradition and culture. The same product, brand name and marketing campaign are not sufficient to introduce your business to other countries. You have to know about the country and the requirements specific to the nation. The important thing that is required is the research about the country you are trying to expose your business into. Study the culture, requirements and the market for your product. Learn about the international policies of the country to avoid legal problems later. Talk more about your international marketing strategy to friends and relatives living in other countries. As you spend more of your time in doing this research you will be able to get a clear idea of what people in other countries want from you. It is important that you have to build a trust among the people about your product

Why entrepreneur should have good relation with lawyer
1. Trust: Building a good relationship with an attorney who’s conscientious and cares about your success is invaluable. Having a thoughtful and client-oriented lawyer will give you a sense of security and peace of mind.
Your attorney will do your worrying for you and identify the risks that can affect you then give you a way to avoid them.
2. Save time: Time is money, and your time is best spent making money.
A good attorney will already know what you’re up against and most times will find an answer faster than you can because of their training.
3. Knowledgeable
Your attorney should be up to date on all of the current decisions and regulations that affect your particular business situation. He should also be aware of local, state, and federal laws that affect your business. This knowledge base can go a long way to helping you get better deals, avoid bad deals, and avoid compliance issues.
4. Skill set: Your skill set is your talent and identifying the resources to make your talent profitable.
5. Focus/Freedom
Having an attorney handle your legal affairs saves you money in the long run because your focus and attention doesn’t have to waiver or split between your business goals and effectively achieving those goals in the most risk averse manner.
6. . Leverage
The best way to leverage your negotiations to maximize their profitability and reduce risk is to have a skilled attorney handle them for you.

Difference b/n indirect export & direct export (3)
Exporting
As a general rule, an entrepreneur starts doing international business through exporting.
Indirect exporting involves a foreign purchaser in the local market or using an export management firm. For certain commodities, foreign buyers seek out sources of supply. Export management firms, another indirect method, are located in many commercial centers.
Direct exporting through independent distributors or through one’s own overseas sales office is another entry method. An independent foreign distributor directly contacts foreign customers and takes care of all technicalities. Entrepreneurs who do not wish to give up control over marketing can open overseas sales offices and hire their own salespeople.

Explain “business method patents” (3)
A patent is a contract between the government and an inventor. The government grants the inventor exclusivity for a specified amount of time. At the end, the government publishes the invention, and it becomes part of the public domain. The patent gives the owners a negative right, preventing anyone from making, using, or selling the invention.
Types of Patents
·         Utility Patents
·         Design Patents
·         Plant Patents
·         International Patents

Situation of entrepreneurship in Far East (5)
·         Entrepreneurial success in some Asian countries has been significant because of the culture and the political and economic systems.
·         The Malaysian government has established the Malaysian Industrial Development authority to promote efforts to eradicate poverty, but has not accomplished much.
·         In Singapore, entrepreneurial success is greatly esteemed.
·         Japan’s social structure discourages entrepreneurship.
·         Hong Kong is a major entrepreneurial center.

What should kept in mind to create a website (5)
A successful website has three characteristics: speed, speed, and speed. Short download time should be the primary concern of website developers. A website should be easy to use, customized for specific market target groups, and compatible with different browsers. If the company is targeting international markets, then translation and cultural adaptation need to be considered. Probably the most difficult aspect of setting up an online business is advertising and promoting the web pages. A company can advertise its website through search engines, banner ads, e-mail, and classifieds. Banner ads can be targeted to the exact audience of the firm. The entrepreneur should collect e-mail addresses from customers for targeted e-mail campaigns. The Internet offers many low-cost or free services for small businesses, including Internet access, unlimited e-mail accounts, online calendar, instant messaging, and online conference rooms.

Difference b/n international & domestic entrepreneurship (3) 
Whether international or domestic, an entrepreneur is concerned about the same basic issues- sales, costs, and profits. What varies is the relative importance of the factors being considered. International entrepreneurial decisions are more complex due to uncontrollable factors such as the following.
·         Economics
·         Balance of Payments
·         Political-Legal Environment
·         Cultural Environment
·         Technological Environment

Consumer can help in creating new idea for new product. Discuss how the consumer can be helpful.  3
Potential entrepreneurs should pay close attention to the final focal point of the idea for a new product or service the potential consumer. This can be an informal or formal survey of consumers expressing their opinions. Care should be taken to ensure that the idea represents a large enough market.

What is copyright? What are its limitations?   3
The exclusive right to make and dispose of copies of a literary, musical, or artistic work
Limitations
All other uses require permission and copyright owners can license or permanently transfer or assign their exclusive rights to others. Copyright does not protect ideas, only their expression or fixation. Without the permission of owner you cannot have a right to copy.

General Agreement on Tariff and Trade (GATT) and its working I think ask from teacher? (05 Marks)
 GATT is a multilateral agreement with the objective of liberalizing trade by eliminating tariffs and import quotas. In each round, mutual tariff reductions are negotiated between member nations. Members can ask for investigation of violations. While GATT has helped develop more unrestricted trade, its voluntary membership gives it little authority.

What is Trademark? Discuss the categories of Trademark? (05 Marks)
A trademark may be a word, symbol, design, or some combination that identifies the source of certain goods.
A trademark can last indefinitely, as long as it continues to perform its indicated function.
The trademark is given a 20-year registration with 20-year renewable terms.
In the fifth to sixth year, you must file an affidavit with the PTO indicating that the patent is in commercial use.
Today the law allows filing a trademark solely on the intent to use the trademark in interstate commerce.
There are benefits to registering a mark that has already been in use.
Categories of trademarks:
·         Coined marks denote no relationship between the mark and the goods and afford the possibility of expansion.
·         An arbitrary mark is one that has another meaning in our language.
·         A suggestive mark is used to suggest certain features or characteristics of a product or service.
·         A descriptive mark must have become distinctive and gained recognition before it can be registered.
·         Registering a trademark can offer significant advantages to the entrepreneur.

Question No: 41    ( Marks: 10 )
In the given situations what types of merger is suitable for each situation and  why?
· McDonald’s with KFC
· One steel mill with another steel mill
· ABN AMRO with Royal bank of Scotland
· Steel mill with a fertilizer producing firm
· An oil cooking producing company with Desi Ghee producing company
McDonald’s with KFC: The merger in this case will be a horizontal merger because they both produce related products, which is the condition of horizontal merger.
One Steel Mill with other Steel Mill: The two steel mills will merge horizontally because both the mills are producing similar product.
ABN AMRO with Royal Bank of Scotland: Both the banks will merge horizontally because both are providing similar type of services.
Steel mill with a fertilizer producing firm: Since both the firms are non-interrelated so this merger will be a diversified merger.
An oil cooking producing company with Desi Ghee producing company: The merger in this situation will be a production merger because production of both products is related but the products themselves are not competing.

Question No: 36    ( Marks: 5 )
Which factors should be studied by entrepreneur to conduct environmental analysis while preparing a business plan? Explain the factors.
The entrepreneur should first conduct an environmental analysis to identify trends and changes occurring on a national and international level that may impact the new venture. Examples of environmental factors are:
· Economy
· Culture
· Technology
· Legal concerns
·         Economy: The entrepreneur first wants to know the economic situation of country where he wants to start the business because this has great impact on its success. If economical situation is not stabilizes then investors will not willing to invest with us, which is the first step for every beginning of business.
·         Culture: It has too much influence on our products which we made. If we produce such thing which is not familiar to people where the business operate there should be loss for. For example; if Bonanza will start to produce Shalwar & Kameez suits in Arab countries who will buy, because in Arab countries there culture is different from us. So, entrepreneur must first look about the culture trends.
·         Technology: Now a day’s technology changes day to day. Every day or week new inventions is there in market, which help us to make business easy for us. We should keep update ourselves in technology perspective to save more money and produce more.
·         Legal Concerns: These are important issue for every entrepreneur. As every country have its own and different laws there. Therefore, he/she must be having knowledge about the limitations and permissions from government of that country where he/she want to do business.

Question No: 37    ( Marks: 5 )
While entering into the international market the companies usually have strategic planning process. What should be considered in the strategic planning?
Strategic Planning offers ideas on how to match the organization’s design to its products and capabilities, goals and resources. This process is much easier to execute once you have obtained a basic knowledge of exporting value-added food products, understand the marketing research process, and analyzed the elements of the marketing mix. Proper organization, both internally and externally, allow the firm to become more efficient in its operations and expansion.
After the information the first step in building a successful export strategy is determining the firm’s readiness to export. The following are guidelines on preparing an export business plan, developing export marketing skills, designing a template for an export marketing plan and considering marketing tools prior to engaging directly in promotional activities.

What are the key environmental factors which differentiate international entrepreneurship from domestic entrepreneurship?  3marks
Factors Which Differentiate International Entrepreneurship from Domestic Entrepreneurship
·         Economics
·         Balance of Payments
·         Type of System Barter, third-party arrangements
·         Political-Legal Environment
·         Cultural Environment
·         Technological Environment
·         Strategic Issues

Question No: 35    ( Marks: 3 )
Describe any three issues that should be addressed in executive summary.
Executive Summary
This is prepared after the total plan is written. It should be three to four pages in length and should highlight the key points in the business plan. The summary should highlight in a concise manner the key points in the business plan. Issues that should be addressed include:
1. Brief description of the business concept
2. Any data that support the opportunity for the venture.
3. Statement of you this opportunity will be pursued.
4. Highlight some key financial results that can be achieved Because of the limited scope of the summary, the entrepreneur should ascertain what is important to the audience to whom the plan is directed

    Question No: 36    ( Marks: 5 )
Briefly discuss the status of entrepreneurship in Europe.
·         Europe has only recently become interested in entrepreneurship.
·         Risk taking has been discouraged and business failure considered a social disgrace.
·         Several changes in the social and political climate have changed this traditional, security- conscious culture.
·         Exemplifying this new thinking are academics, especially scientists and engineers.
·         Today more individuals are emerging in both academic circles and large companies who are look for a challenge.
·         New government policies are making it easier to raise money for starting up businesses.
·         The U.K. created the Business Expansion Scheme in 1983 to provide capital to new business ventures.
·         In France several economic and social factors cause difficulties.
·         Venture capital is managed by bankers, who are risk averse.
·         Another hurdle is the French contempt for both failure and success.
·         Research in Ireland and Sweden has explored the nature of European entrepreneurship.   

Question No: 37    ( Marks: 5 )
Discuss what kind of information should be mentioned in “description of venture” section of a business plan.
Description of the Venture
The description of the venture should be detailed in this section. This should begin with the mission statement or company mission, which describes the nature of the business and what the entrepreneur hopes to accomplish. The new venture should be described in detail, including the product, location, personnel, background of entrepreneur, and history of the venture. The emphasis placed on location is a function of the type of business. Maps that locate customers, competitors, and alternative locations can be helpful. If the building or site decision involves legal issues, the entrepreneur should hire a lawyer.

Question No: 35    ( Marks: 3 )
Briefly discuss licensing and its benefits.
LICENSING:- Licensing is an arrangement between two parties, where one party has proprietary rights protected by a patent, trademark, or copyright. This requires the licensee to pay a royalty to the holder of the proprietary rights in return for permission to copy the patent. Licensing has significant value as a marketing strategy to holders of patents.
Benefits Licensing can increase revenues, without the risk and costly start-up investment. Licensing can also be a way to start a new venture when the idea may infringe.

Question No: 36    ( Marks: 5 ) 
While using brain storming for new idea creation what measures should be taken to acquire a good idea?
Brainstorming
A group method of obtaining new ideas and solutions is called brainstorming. The brainstorming method for generating new ideas is based on the fact that people can be stimulated to greater creativity by meeting with others an d participating with organized group experiences. Although most of the ideas generated from the group have no basis for further development, often a good idea emerges.
CREATIVE PROBLEM SOLVING
Creative problem solving is a method for obtaining new ideas focusing on the parameters.
Brainstorming
The first technique, brainstorming, is probably the most well known and widely used for both creative problem solving and idea generation. It is an unstructured process for generating all possible ideas about a problem within a limited time frame through the spontaneous contribution of participants. All ideas, no matter how illogical, must be recorded, with participants prohibited from criticizing or evaluating during the brainstorming session.
Reverse brainstorming
Similar to brainstorming, but criticism is allowed and encouraged as a way to bring out possible problems with the ideas.

Question No: 37    ( Marks: 5 ) 
While developing the web site what characteristics should be kept in mind?
A well designed website can bring positive effect to a company’s image. It speaks a lot about your organization and can give it public recognition. So, while creating a website certain things have to be taken care of. Some of the points that should be strictly followed for developing an effective website design are mentioned below:
·         Importance of Focus- first the target audience should be determined and then the design should be done according to their tastes and requirements. The site should be visually appealing and the content should be simple. Otherwise the online visitors will click out of the site.
·         Reduced Loading Time- always avoid using large images in a website. This is because; big images extend the loading time and thus reduce a site’s possibility of getting public attention.
·         Keep the Site Simple- the site should be kept simple. Insertion of too much flash elements should be avoided and the colors used in the website should be eye soothing.
·         Importance of Balance- HTML can be used for displaying all the links to the other web pages. However, while providing web design solutions, the one thing that should be kept in mind is the browser compatibilities.

How prepare business plan for attract investors (3)
Investors provide large sums of capital for ownership (equity) and expect to cash out within 5 to 7 years. They will often place more emphasis on the entrepreneur’s character than lenders. The venture capitalist will play an important role in management of the business and wants the entrepreneurs to be pliable and willing to accept this involvement. These investors will also demand high rates of return and will thus focus on the market and financial projections. If the entrepreneur does not consider the needs of these sources, the plan may be an internalized document without consideration of the feasibility of meeting market goals. Most external advisors and potential investors are bound by a professional code of ethics regarding disclosure.

Question No: 41 ( Marks: 5 )
In which classification the research on ‘business ethics’ can be broken down?
Research on business ethics can be broken down into four broad classifications:
1. Pedagogically-oriented inquiry
2. Theory-building without empirical testing
3. Empirical research, measuring the attitudes and ethical beliefs of students and academic faculty
4. Empirical research within business environments

Question No: 41      ( Marks: 5 )
Discuss the ‘age’ factor as an important characteristic of entrepreneurs.
Age
Entrepreneurial age is the age of the entrepreneur reflected in the experience. Entrepreneurial experience is one of the best predictors of success. In chronological age, most entrepreneurs start their careers between ages 22 and 55. Earlier starts in an entrepreneurial career seem to be better than later ones. Generally, male entrepreneurs start their first venture in their early 30s, while women tend to do so in their middle 30s.

Question No: 42      ( Marks: 5 )
Elaborate the situation of entrepreneurship in the Far East.
  1. Entrepreneurial success in some Asian countries has been significant because of the culture and the political and economic systems.
  2. The Malaysian government has established the Malaysian Industrial Development authority to promote efforts to eradicate poverty, but has not accomplished much.
  3. In Singapore, entrepreneurial success is greatly esteemed.
  4. Japan’s social structure discourages entrepreneurship.
  5. Hong Kong is a major entrepreneurial center.

Question No: 41 ( Marks: 5 )
What is meant by role models? What role do they perform?
ROLE MODELS AND SUPPORT SYSTEMS One of the most important factors influencing entrepreneurs in their career choice is role models. Role models can be parents, relatives, or successful entrepreneurs in the community. Role models can also serve in a supportive capacity as mentors during and after the new venture is launched. This support system is most crucial during the start-up phase.
It is important that an entrepreneur establish connections to support resources early in the venture formation process. As contacts expand they form a network with density (extensiveness of ties between two individuals) and centrality (the total distance of the entrepreneur to all other individuals.) The strength of ties between the entrepreneur and any individual is dependent on the frequency, level, and reciprocity of the relationship. An informal network for moral and professional support benefits the entrepreneur.

Question No: 41 ( Marks: 5 )
Enlist any five characteristics in which male entrepreneurs are different from female entrepreneurs.
Education
Education appears important in the upbringing of the entrepreneur, in the level of education obtained and in playing a major role in coping with problems. Although formal education is not necessary for starting a new business, it does provide a good background. In education, female entrepreneurs previously experienced some disadvantage, with few having degrees in engineering, science, or math. The ability to deal with people and communicate clearly in written and spoken work is also important.
Personal Values
Studies have failed to indicate that entrepreneurs can be differentiated on personal valued from managers, unsuccessful entrepreneurs, or the general public. Leadership, support, aggression, benevolence, conformity, creativity, veracity, and resource seeking may also be important. A successful entrepreneur is frequently characterized as a winner; winning may be a prerequisite for his or her actually becoming one.
Age
Entrepreneurial age is the age of the entrepreneur reflected in the experience. Entrepreneurial experience is one of the best predictors of success. In chronological age, most entrepreneurs start their careers between ages 22 and 55. Earlier starts in an entrepreneurial career seem to be better than later ones. Generally, male entrepreneurs start their first venture in their early 30s, while women tend to do so in their middle 30s.
Work History
Dissatisfaction with one’s job often motivates the launching of a new venture. Previous technical and industry experience is also important once the decision to start a business is made. Experience in the following areas is particularly important: financing; product or service development; manufacturing; development of distribution channels; and preparation of a marketing plan. As the venture becomes established, managerial experience and skills become more important. Entrepreneurial experience becomes increasingly important as the complexity of the venture increases.
MOTIVATION While motivations may vary, the reason cited most often for becoming an entrepreneur independence-not wants to work for anyone else. Other motivating factors differ between male and female entrepreneurs. Money is the second reason for men’s starting a venture. Job satisfaction, achievement, opportunity, and money are the second order reasons for women.

Explain types of exchange systems & explain how barter system emerged in international trade.  5marks
There are two type of exchange system
  1. Barter system
  2. Third party arrangement

Barter system
        A method of payments using non-money items
Third party arrangement
            Paying for goods indirectly through another source
 
Barter system emerged in international trade
The former USSR received technology and syrup from Pepsi and provided it with Soviet vodka and rights to distribute it in the US. This is an example of: barter system. Pepsi is used barter type arrangement that satisfied both the socialized system of the former USSR and the U.S capitalist system. In return of receiving technology and syrup form Pepsi, the former USSR provided with company with soviet vodka and the right to distribute in the united state

What is gordon method how is it used for creative problem solving? 3 marks
Gordon method is a method of developing new ideas when the individuals are unaware of the problem. In this method the entrepreneur starts by mentioning a general concept associated with the problem. The group responds with expressing a number of ideas.

What are conditions of best partner? 3(marks)
A good partner help the entrepreneur achieve his or her goal such as market access, cost sharing, or more competency obtainment. They also share the entrepreneur’s vision and are unlikely try to opportunistically exploit the partnership for their own benefit. 

Why a lawyer is needed to create a new venture explain reasons?
NEED FOR A LAWYER
All business is regulated by law. The entrepreneur needs to be aware of regulations that affect the new venture. At different stages the entrepreneur will need legal advice. The legal expertise required will vary based on factors such as type of product and organizational status. The entrepreneur should carefully evaluate his or her needs before hiring a lawyer.

What R the Factors that Facilitate the Growth of E-Commerce? (3 marks )
Factors that facilitate the growth of e- commerce are:
1. The widespread use of personal computers.
2. The adoption of intranets in companies.
3. The acceptance of the Internet as a business communications platform.

As an Entrepreneur if u start new Business at which factors u would concentrate in the context of Economics. (3 marks )
Economics
A domestic business strategy is designed under a single economic system. Creating a business strategy for multiple countries means dealing with different levels of economic development and different distribution systems.

Discuss why it is necessary for an entrepreneur to have good relationship with a lawyer.
The entrepreneur normally does not have the expertise and much know how to handle possible risk associated with many different laws and regulations. So , an entrepreneur needs help of  a competent lawyer to handle such situations nicely.
A good relationship with a competent lawyer may help entrepreneur to eliminate risk associated with new starting business and it will give confidence to the entrepreneur. The lawyer with whom you are going to work should be some one you can relate easily and frankly with trust. 

Problem Inventory Analysis Techniques. (5 Marks)
Problem inventory analysis uses individuals in a manner that is like to focus groups to generate new product ideas. However instead of generating new ideas themselves, consumers are provided with a list of problems in a general product category. They are then asked to identify and discuss products in this category that have the particular problem. This method is often effective since it is easier to relate known products to suggested problems and arrive at a new product idea then to generate an entirely new idea by itself.

Discuss the role of export management firm as an indirect source of exporting.   5
Export management firms, another indirect method, are located in many commercial centers. For a fee, these firms will provide representation in foreign market. Typically, they represent a group of non-competing manufactures from the same country who have no interest in becoming directly involved in exporting. The expert management handles all of selling, marketing and delivery, in addition to any problem technical problems involved in the export process.  

Briefly discuss the product planning and development stage.       5
This refining process- the product planning and development process – is divided in to five major stages. Idea stage, concept stage, product development stage, test marketing stage and commercializing; it result in the product life cycle. 
·         Idea Stage
Promising new product ideas should be identified and impractical ones eliminated in the idea stage allowing maximum use of company’s resources. In the systematic market evaluation checklist method, each new product idea is expressed in terms of its chief values, merits, and benefits.
·         Concept Stage
In the concept stage the refined idea is tested to determine consumer acceptance without manufacturing it.
·         Product Development Stage
In this stage, consumer reaction is determined, often through a consumer panel. The panel can be given samples of the product and competitors’ products to determine consumer preference.
·         Commercialization
Although the results of product development stage provide the basis of the final marketing plan, the market test can be done to increase the certainty of successful commercialization.
·         Test Marketing Stage
The last step in the evaluation process, the test marketing stage, provides actual sales results which indicate the acceptance level of consumers. Positive test results indicate the degree of probability of a successful product launch and company formation.

What activities are required at Test Marketing Stage of Product Planning & Development Process? (3 M)
Test Marketing Stage Although the results of product development stage provide the basis of the final marketing plan, the market test can be done to increase the certainty of successful commercialization. The last step in the evaluation process, the test marketing stage, provides actual sales results which indicate the acceptance level of consumers. Positive test results indicate the degree of probability of a successful product launch and company formation.

Discuss how can lenders evaluate the business plan. (5 marks)
 Lenders are primarily interested in the ability of the new venture to pay back the debt and focus on the four C’s of credit:
1. The entrepreneur’s credit history or character.
2. Their ability to meet debt and interest payments (cash flow.)
3. The collateral or tangible assets being secured.
4. Equity contribution or the amount of personal equity that has been invested by the entrepreneur.

a.b.c. company want do international business discuss the effects of trade barriers and effects on entrepreneur.
Entrepreneur’s Strategies and Trade Barriers
Trade barriers pose problems for entrepreneurs who want to become involved in international business. Trade barriers increase the costs of exporting projects to a country. Voluntary export restrictions may limit the ability to sell products in a country from production facilities outside the country. An entrepreneur may have to locate assembly or facilities in a country to conform to the local content regulations.

Explain business method patent & give example.  3marks
A patent is a contract between the government and an inventor. The government grants the inventor exclusivity for a specified amount of time. At the end, the government publishes the invention, and it becomes part of the public domain. The patent gives the owners a negative right, preventing anyone from making, using, or selling the invention.

Why business plan is significant. (5 Marks)
Business plan is significant because, In running or starting a business, the learning curve is short before you run out of resources and are forced to close. Therefore, a business plan helps you set up a sound framework, model and system ahead of time, as well as, treat potential problems and threats, so that you can capably run a business. A funding business plan will save you a lot of time and money. The beautiful thing about a business plan is that it actually creates the future of your business, as you want it to be. It gives you more control over what future success will come. More importantly, it gives you a great process to grow the future business you desire, whether that is a start up, acquisition, expansion or build out.

WHAT IS INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY?
Intellectual property which includes patents, trademarks, copyrights, and trade secrets represent important assets of entrepreneur and should be understood even before engaging the services of an attorney. Because entrepreneurs often don’t understand intellectual property, they can ignore steps that should be taken to protect these assets.

What activities are done at product development stage pf the product development process?   
In this stage, consumer reaction is determined, often through a consumer panel. The panel can be given samples of the product and competitors’ products to determine consumer preference. Participants keep the record of their use of product and comment on its virtues and deficiencies. The panel of consumers is also given a sample of product and one or more competitive product simultaneously. One test product may already be on the market, whereas the other test product is new.

Question No: 42 __ ( Marks: 5 )
ABC firm (a renowned company) wants to own foreign subsidiary in other country named Z.ABC firm wants to reduce the risk with a quick entry in the market of country Z. but the firm is not much familiar with the culture and market structure of the country Z.
Which type of investment would you suggest the ABC firm should do? Support your answer with sound reasoning.

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