Wednesday, November 28, 2012

Cyber Crime New Tactics in URDU


Top 5 Strange Treehouse Engineering

The Lodge Tree house
not all tree houses are deep in the forest. All it takes is one good, sturdy trunk: This Scots Pine fits the bill. Derek Sanderson and his team at Amazon Tree houses fashioned the Lodge after an existing home on a plot in the Scottish Highlands, using a two-tiered support system of planks that hug the tree at both its midsection and near to the ground.
There's not a thing about this loch-side dwelling that isn't scenic. It's got plenty of water-facing windows that offer views and natural light. Its staircase, not to be outdone by the rest of the construction, runs between two large boughs of the pine as it leads up to the Lodge.
Tree houses such as this aren't cheap--an elaborate one like the Lodge can cost in the ballpark of $100,000.

Longwood Gardens
Another tree house by Jake Jacob and his Tree House Workshop, the Longwood Gardens abode in Pennsylvania looks more like a cathedral than anything else. It's supported by both trees and house-to-ground pillars, but the real challenge was installing a specially cut $38,000 window.
To get the job done, Jacob employed a block-and-tackle technique called "tree house rigging" that his team has helped pioneer. Basically, a sturdy tree is almost as good as having a crane on-site: "We use the trees that we're working in as pick-points for serious rigging," Jacob said. "Trees can help move a lot of stuff up, but also horizontally." Luckily there was a path running right up to the house, so Jacob and his team could transport the 12-sq-ft glass to the Longwood Gardens doorstep and install it.
The Longwood Gardens tree house accompanies three other tree houses already on the premises and acts as a rustic lookout point from which to enjoy the gardens.

The Cedar Spire Tree house
The Cedar Spire's castle-like look appeals to those of us who treated our tree houses as pirate forts and fantasy getaways. Derek Sanderson of Amazon Tree houses was commissioned to build Cedar Spire when a 500-year-old cedar tree on an estate in Scotland lost its largest limb to lightning, and the property owner wanted something to fill the gap. And why not patch it with a 45-foot-tall tree-castle, right?
Cedar Spire is as roomy as it looks, with enough space for almost a dozen people to enjoy a meal inside and on the deck. Its stained glass windows heighten its fairy-tale atmosphere. It also has a second floor, reachable by ladder, which Amazon Tree houses describes as an "ideal place for an exciting sleepover." For the adventurous, it also has a zip-line that leads to a tree 600 ft away.

The Lantern, located in California's Santa Monica Mountains is interesting for its use of copper. The house's builder Roderick Romero usually uses reclaimed and found wood exclusively. "I like to take something that has to be structurally sound, has to be engineered," he says, "and then work it so it looks natural." The design and name come from a trip Romero took to Morocco, where he fell in love with some ornate lanterns he saw. So he installed a top and bottom made out of copper commissioned from local church builders.
Using copper was a bit more difficult than wood, which can be more or less shaped on the fly by a skilled builder. Romero's team found that it had to send back pieces that were just millimeters off to be reworked.
Like Romero's Costa Rica tree house, the Lantern can serve as a humble living space with a lofted bed inside, and an Incinolet toilet that turns all of the waste into fine ash compost.

Greenwood Family House
Like many tree house builders, Charles Greenwood lives in one himself. It gives him a place to tweak and experiment--much like someone would in his garage. One result from his tinkering is the flexible feed you see in the picture above, which Greenwood installed to help compensate for the natural motion of the trees that support his home. Pipes can be problematic in strong winds, and the flexible plumbing, hidden under the stairs, works just as well.
Greenwood's home further accommodates its Douglas fir's swaying because it is mounted to the tree with flexible joints. Greenwood has lived in the 700-sq-ft home for four years; it has two small balcony decks, full plumbing, electricity and everything else you could want from a home on the ground. And his tree house rocks, literally.


TOP 8 Amazing Separation Walls

 Hadrian's Wall
Hadrian's Wall
Hadrian was born on January 24, 76 A.D. He died on July 10, 138, having been emperor since 117. Mementos of Hadrian's reign persist in the form of coins and the many building projects he undertook. The most famous is the wall across Britain that was named Hadrian's Wall. Hadrian's Wall was built, beginning in 122, to keep Roman Britain safe from hostile attacks from the Picts. It was the northernmost boundary of the Roman empire until early in the fifth century. 

The wall, stretching from the North Sea to the Irish Sea (from the Tyne to the Solway), was 80 Roman miles (about 73 modern miles) long, 8-10 feet wide, and 15 feet high. In addition to the wall, the Romans built a system of small forts called milecastles (housing garrisons of up to 60 men) every Roman mile along its entire length, with towers every 1/3 mile. Sixteen larger forts holding from 500 to 1000 troops were built into the wall, with large gates on the north face. To the south of the wall the Romans dug a wide ditch (vallum), with six foot high earth banks. 

 The Great Wall of Croatia
The Great Wall of Croatia
The town of Ston, Croatia, is protected by a wall three and a half miles long. This archaeological gem was built during the fifteen century while the region struggled for some margin of independence from the Ottoman Empire. It gradually decayed over time and was devastated by an earthquake in 1996, but restoration is presently underway. 

 The Great Wall of India
The Great Wall of India
Kumbhalgarh, the second longest wall on earth, can be found in the state of Rajasthan in Western India. Construction of the 36 kilometer wall began with the rule of Rana Kumbha in the year 1443.

Situated in the state of Rajasthan in the Northwest of India, work was begun by the local Maharana, Rana Kumbha. It took over a century to construct the wall and it was later enlarged in the 19th century. It worked as a fort until that period, but is now a museum.

 Israeli West Bank barrier
Israeli West Bank barrier
The Israeli West Bank barrier is a separation barrier under construction by the State of Israel along and within the West Bank. Upon completion, the barrier's total length will be approximately 700 kilometres (430 mi). The barrier is built mainly in the West Bank and partly along the 1949 Armistice line, or "Green Line" between Israel and the Palestinian West Bank. According to the Israeli human rights organization B'Tselem, 8.5% of the West Bank area is on the Israeli side of the barrier, and 3.4% is on the other side but "partly or completely surrounded." 

 The Great Wall of China
The Great Wall of China
Beginning in the 7th century BC, a series of massive defensive fortifications were constructed along China's northern border. Built to protect China from northern attacks, the walls stretched for thousands of kilometers, many joining together to become the Great Wall of China. Over several centuries, the wall and thousands of supporting structures were built across mountains, deserts, and rivers, eventually stretching more than 20,000 kilometers in length. Sections of the wall near large cities are well-maintained, but many remote areas are slowly being reclaimed by nature.

 The Berlin Wall
The Berlin Wall
The Berlin Wall was the physical division between West Berlin and East Germany. However, it was also the symbolic boundary between democracy and communism during the Cold War. The Berlin Wall was erected in the dead of night and for 28 years kept East Germans from fleeing to the West. Its destruction, which was nearly as instantaneous as its creation, was celebrated around the world. 

 Walls of Constantinople (Turkey)
Walls of Constantinople (Turkey)
The Walls of Constantinople are a series of defensive stone walls that have surrounded and protected the city of Constantinople (today Istanbul in Turkey) since its founding as the capital of the Eastern Roman Empire by Constantine the Great. With numerous additions and modifications during their history, they were the last great fortification system of antiquity, and one of the most complex and elaborate systems ever built. Initially built by Constantine the Great, the walls surrounded the new city on all sides, protecting it against attack from both sea and land. As the city grew, the famous double line of the Theodosian Walls was built in the 5th century. Although the other sections of the walls were less elaborate, when well manned they were almost impregnable for any medieval besieger, saving the city, and the Byzantine Empire, during sieges from the Avars, Arabs, Rus', and Bulgars, among others (see Sieges of Constantinople). The advent of gunpowder siege cannons rendered the fortifications vulnerable, leading to the fall of Constantinople to the Ottomans on 29 May, 1453 after a prolonged siege.

The walls were largely maintained intact during most of the Ottoman period, until sections began to be dismantled in the 19th century, as the city outgrew its medieval boundaries. Despite the subsequent lack of maintenance, many parts of the walls survived and are still standing today. A large-scalerestoration programme has been under way since the 1980s, which allows the visitor to appreciate their original appearance. 

 Conwy town walls
Conwy town walls
Conwy's town walls are a medieval defensive structure around the town of Conwy in North Wales. The walls were constructed between 1283 and 1287 after the foundation of Conwy by Edward I, and were designed to form anintegrated system of defense alongside Conwy Castle. The walls are 1.3 km (0.81 mi) long and include 21 towers and three gatehouses. The project was completed using large quantities of laborers brought in from England; the cost of building the castle and walls together came to around £15,000, a huge sum for the period. Today the walls form part of the UNESCO world heritage site administered by Cadw. Historians Oliver Creighton and Robert Higham describe the defenses as "one of the most impressive walled circuits" in Europe.


Top 5 Man Made Strangest Islands

Thilafushi, the Garbage Island
Today, a sodden mound of buried garbage caps the former lagoon Thilafalhu, situated just a few miles west of Malé, the capital of the Maldives. The 
facelift warranted a name change, so Thilafushi, the garbage island was born. It was an emergency measure adopted to solve Male's trash crisis. The island makers dug gigantic pits and used the excavated sand to build up the perimeter. They filled the pits with unsorted garbage, then dug more pits and so it has gone. The fact that the island's discarded water wings, key chains, plastic daquiri cups and innocuous waste is jumbled with lead-acid batteries, asbestos and other toxic materials has some environmental groups concerned. Heavy metals could leech into the water table or the sea, they say, where they could harm people, reefs and other marine wildlife.
Now, industrial plants lease the land above the garbage. 
Warehouses, boat manufacturers and methane bottlers are some of the operations underway.

Amwaj Islands, Bahrain
These islands of expensive 
residential real estate lie northeast of Bahrain, fronting the sea and artificial lagoons. They are exemplary both for their innovations in engineering and land ownership laws. When building it, construction crews fenced in the island's perimeters with miles of geotubes, hydraulically filled tubes of sand. And when the lots went on the market, the government made an exception and allowed foreigners to buy them. Previously, foreigners could only rent land.

Dubai's Palm Islands and Coastline
Dubai's coast has grown garish with stylized beachfront lots for the wealthy. To date, there are two palm-tree-shaped islands 
crowned with sandy crescent strips with a planned third one on the way. There's also an inaccurate world map of sandy plots arranged in an oval, collectively called The World, and an island built for the world's only seven-star hotel, the Burj Al Arab.
Jumeirah is the smallest palm island and the first one built. To make it, dredger ships pumped sand from the sea floor and spewed it out in an arc onto the site of the island's crescent breakwater. The builders covered it with an erosion-resistant cloth, then stacked layers of rocks on the sand. Then, assisted by GPS, they pumped sand inside the breakwater to carefully form the 16 fronds of the palm. The crescent is sliced twice with wide openings to allow the seawater to circulate and prevent stagnation

Floating Island on the Mur
The Murinsel, German for "Mur Island," is an upside down turtle shell in the river Mur in Graz, Austria. Its steel-latticed glass and vaguely geodesic shape invoke artists' renderings of the deep marine cities where our grandchildren will probably vacation some day. At night, the island glows blue like a billboard for the Tron sequel. It is 155 feet in diameter, topped with a playground and an
amphitheater. Under the waterline, there's a café and bar. It looks as if it's suspended between bridges to both of the Mur's shores, but it's actually on a floating platform.
The island is a cross-cultural endeavor: a New York-based architect, Vito Acconci, designed it to mark Graz's designation as the European Capital of Culture in 2003
The Uros Floating Reed Islands
Floating reed islands bear homes, schools and even a 
radio station on Lake Titicaca, which rides the border between Bolivia and Peru. Their inhabitants, the Uros, preserve an old-school artificial island-making technique that their predecessors employed for centuries. They bundle totora reeds—the stalks of the giant bulrush—into floating, shape-shifting masses that change as reeds rot and new ones are lashed on.
Reeds are the backbone of Uros construction. They bundle them to make their islands, homes, their cartoonishly curved boats and even their sails. Walking on the islands is like walking on a giant gummy bear, and if it's not patched well, a foot can go all the way through. Reportedly, the islands are the relics of a prehistoric military strategy: when invaders came, the Uros could slowly drift away.


Pakistan Blocks Thousands of Adult Websites PTA

Pakistani internet service providers have started to block the adult websites and the explicit content.
PTA has planned to block 150,000 adult websites in coming weeks. They have sent an initial list of 1,000 websites to all ISPs, mobile operators and international gateways to get them blocked. Local adult websites are also included in this list.
8-10 days have been given to the ISPs to block the websites. Many ISPs including PTCL have already blocked these websites. Other ISPs are also preparing to block these.
PTA is also working on how to allow general public to report the adult websites. The authority will review these reported websites and will add them to the blacklist.
What are your views on this?

Dutch car Helicar Takes 1st successful Flight

AMSTERDAM: Some Dutch guys have merged together the parts of helicopter and car to come up with a flying car, which was earlier just a dream. They are calling it a Helicar. This expansive Helicar prototype went through a successful 1st flight.
“On the earth the automobile pushes like a activities car,” says Pal-V. “Within moments its knives is unfolded and its end is extended: then it is willing to take off thanks to the innovative gyrocopter technological innovation.”
“With these effective analyze outcomes it is confirmed that it is not only possible to develop a traveling car but also that it can be done within current worldwide guidelines for both traveling and generating.”
This Helicar has three wheels and it looks more like a motorcycle. It hits 180km/h, both in the air and on the ground. Currently, we don’t have any news about when the Helicar will be commercially available.


MGT201 GDB Solution IDEA 2012

Total Marks
Starting Date
Tuesday, November 27, 2012
Closing Date
Wednesday, November 28, 2012
Bond Valuation and Yield on Bond

Learning Objective:
To understand the application of bond valuation for investment decisions.

Learning Outcome:
After attempting this GDB, the students would be able to understand the application of bond valuation for investment decisions.

The Case:

Suppose, you are working as an investment consultant in a consultancy firm and most of your clients are habitual investors, who are maintaining their own portfolios comprising of various combinations of stocks and bonds. 

Mr. Zahid, a habitual investor comes to you for consulting about adding one more potential investing option to his existing portfolio. Currently, as per your analysis, there are two bonds available in the market with the following data:

Bond A
Bond B
3 years
8 years
Coupon payment
10% Annual
10% Semiannual

*Note: Interest rate fluctuations are high in the market

·        Suggest Mr. Zahid, who is interested to add only one bond to his portfolio about the suitable bond for his portfolio.
·        Support your choice by elaborating the reason on which the suggested bond is considered as a preferred option.

Important Instructions:
1.       Your discussion must be based on logical facts.
2.       The GDB will remain open for 2 working days/48 hours.
3.       Your answer should be relevant to the topic i.e. clear and concise.
4.       Your discussion should not exceed 60 words.
5.       Do not copy or exchange your answer with other students. Two identical / copied comments will be marked Zero (0) and may damage your grade in the course.
6.       Obnoxious or ignoble answer should be strictly avoided.
7.       Questions / queries related to the content of the GDB, which may be posted by the students on MDB or via e-mail, will not be replied till the due date of GDB is over.
Ø        For detailed instructions, please see the GDB announcement.


Dear friends, if we consider the face value of both the bonds Rs. 1000. Then apparently it seems that investment in bond B will be better. Rest i can better comment after detailed calculations. Anybody who has different opinion can share immediately, so that we can arrive at correct solution by fruitful discussion


I think, Bond A is better. Keeping in mind the following points:
Maturity: Shorter maturities have less risk, so their interest rates don't have to be as high as long-term maturities to attract buyers.
The longer the time to maturity for a bond, the greater the risk that the issuing company will experience financial trouble.
Coupon Payment: A bond with semiannual payments would have a higher price than a bond with annual payments when they both are selling at a premium. 
In general, bonds with semiannual payments are more sensitive to changes in market interest rates. For the same amount of decline in market interest rates, bonds with semiannual payments tend to see more price increases.
Hence the one with annual payments is better.
Read more: Bond Prices: Annual Vs. Semiannual Payments |
Yield: If you purchase a higher grade, lower yield bond, you are exposed to less default risk, and you have a higher chance of getting all of the promised coupon payments and the par value if you hold the bond to maturity.
Read more:


if we go with the handout and lectures then Bond B is Better because long bond risk theory ,yield to maturity and biannual payment all says Bond B is better


Face value= FV=Rs. 100
Annual Coupon = 10%
Yield = 6.23%
Maturity = 3 yrs
CF = Coupon Interest Rate * Par value
CF = 10% * 100
CF = Rs. 10 p.a
PV (6.23%) = CF /(1+6.23%)+ CF /(1+6.23%)2+ CF /(1+6.23%)3+ FV /(1+6.23%)3
PV = 10/1.0623 +10/(1.063) 2 + 10/(1.063) 3+ 100/(1.063) 3
PV = 9.41 + 8.85 + 8.33 + 83.26
Bond Price = 109.85
Rs. 100 today at 10% mark-up for 3 years is worth positive Rs. 109.85 to the client today.

Face value= FV=Rs. 100
Semi Annual Coupon = 10%
Yield = 9.8%, semi-annual = 4.9%
Maturity = 8 yrs
Total Coupon payments = 2*8 = 16 coupon payments
Each coupon payment = 10%*100
                                                = Rs. 10 p.6m
Bond Price = 10 * [1 – [ 1/(1+0.049)16]]/0.049 + 100/(1+0.049)16
Bond Price = 10 *[1-0.465]/0.049 + 100/2.15
Bind Price = 109 + 46.5
Bond Price = 155.5 = 156
Rs. 100 today at 10% mark-up semi-annual for 8 years is worth positive Rs. 156 to the client today.

When Market Interest Rate (ie. Investors’ Required Rate of Return) Increases, the Value (or
Price) of Bond Decreases. So, when interest rate in denominator goes up the present value (price) will decrease. When investor buy a long term bond he is locked in investment for long term period there are more chances of fluctuation in interest rate and the inflation rate.
So, the impact of interest rate changes on Long Term bonds is greater. Long Term Bond Prices fluctuate more because their Coupon Rates are fixed (or locked) for a long time even though Market Interest Rates are fluctuating daily; therefore the price of Long Bonds has to constantly keep adjusting. Price of the long term bond fluctuates more as compared to the short term bond.  So we will suggest Bond A to Mr. Zahid to add in his portfolio.



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